Method for producing glucaric acid

Abstract

The disclosure provides a method for creating a transformant having significantly improved glucaric acid-producing capability and a method for efficiently producing glucaric acid using the transformant.

Claims

The invention claimed is: 1. A method of producing glucaric acid comprising: (1) providing a Escherichia coli strain transformed with an overexpression vector comprising a gene encoding inositol monophosphatase, and having genes encoding inositol-1-phospahte synthase, myo-inositol oxygenase, and uronate dehydrogenase; (2) growing and/or maintaining the transformed Escherichia coli strain with a carbon source under conditions suitable to convert the carbon source to glucaric acid and/or glucarate; and (3) separating the glucaric acid or glucarate from the transformed Escherichia coli strain. 2. The method according to claim 1 , wherein the carbon source contains a compound that can be converted into glucose-6-phosphate within the transformed Escherichia coli strain. 3. The method according to claim 2 , wherein the carbon source is one or more selected from the group consisting of D-glucose, sucrose, oligosaccharide, polysaccharide, starch, cellulose, rice bran, molasses, and biomass containing D-glucose.
A computer readable text file, entitled “SequenceListing.txt,” created on or about Aug. 7, 2014 with a file size of about 33 kb contains the sequence listing for this application and is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. TECHNICAL FIELD The present invention relates to the application of gene recombination technology in the production of glucaric acid. BACKGROUND ART Glucaric acid (tetrahydroxyadipic acid) is a compound discovered long ago in plants and mammals. In a recent report on high value-added chemicals to be made from biomass (Non-patent Reference 1), the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory listed glucaric acid among the top 12 compounds. This report gives glucaro-γ-lactone, glucaro-δ-lactone, glucarodilactone, and other such lactones (which can be expected to be used as solvents), polyhydroxypolyamides (which can be expected to be used as novel nylons), and the like as examples of glucaric acid derivatives that can be prepared using glucaric acid as a raw material. This report also states that nitric acid oxidation of starch and catalytic oxidation in the presence of basic bleach can be utilized as known methods of producing glucaric acid. Patent Reference 1 also more recently disclosed transformants capable of biosynthesizing glucaric acid. Specifically, in Patent Reference 1, an Escherichia coli host was transfected by three genes encoding myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase (Ino1), myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX), and uronic acid dehydrogenase (udh). It states that the transformants obtained in this way produced glucaric acid in a concentration of 0.72-1.13 g/L in the medium. However, the inventors of Patent Reference 1 held that introduction of an inositol monophosphatase (suhB) gene into the transformants of this patent reference was unnecessary. Specifically, five activities are theoretically required in a glucaric acid biosynthetic pathway using glucose as a substrate: activity 1: activity to produce glucose-6-phosphate from a suitable carbon source; activity 2: activity to convert glucose-6-phosphate into myo-inositol-1-phosphate, that is, inositol-1-phosphate synthase activity; activity 3: activity to convert myo-inositol-1-phosphate into myo-inositol, that is, phosphatase activity taking myo-inositol-1-phosphate as a substrate activity 4: activity to convert myo-inositol into glucuronic acid, that is, myo-inositol oxygenase activity; and activity 5: activity to convert glucuronic acid into glucaric acid, that is, uronic acid dehydrogenase activity. However, since the glucose-6-phosphate that is a product of activity 1 is in fact a metabolic intermediate universally produced by prokaryotic microorganisms, it is not essential to impart this activity to prokaryotic microorganisms. With regard to activity 3 as well, many microbial strains are known to express endogenous inositol monophosphatase or to have general monophosphatase activity capable of using myo-inositol-1-phosphate as a substrate. It is therefore understandable that no inositol monophosphatase gene was introduced into the transformants of Patent Reference 1. Therefore, Patent Reference 1 concludes that an inositol monophosphatase gene need not be introduced into transformants to biosynthesize glucaric acid based on metabolic analysis of the transformants produced. Specifically, Patent Reference 1 states “It should also be noted that we did not overexpress the suhB gene or a homologous phosphatase. However, no myo-inositol-1-phosphate was detected among the culture products, while myo-inositol did accumulate. Therefore, we conclude that the phosphatase activity is not limiting flux through the pathway.” (page 33, lines 2-5). Therefore, there existed no obvious motivation for introducing an inositol monophosphatase gene into transformants for the biosynthesis of glucaric acid. PRIOR ART REFERENCES Patent References Patent Reference 1: WO2009/145838 pamphlet Non-Patent References Non-patent Reference 1: Top Value Added Chemicals from Biomass Volume 1—Results of Screening for Potential Candidates from Sugars and Synthesis Gas, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/biomass/pdfs/35523.pdf, T. Werpy and G. Peterson, published August 2004. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Problems to be Solved by the Invention The problem to be solved by the invention is the production of transformants having significantly improved glucaric acid production capacity and their utilization. Means Used to Solve the Above-Mentioned Problems As was discussed above, even Patent Reference 1 that disclosed transformants capable of biosynthesizing glucaric acid does not introduce an inositol monophosphatase gene into these transformants and paid no particular attention to this activity. However, contrary to the expectations of Patent Reference 1, the present inventors discovered that inositol monophosphatase activity plays an important role in transformants for glucaric acid biosynthesis. Among other things, enhancing the inositol monophosphatase activity improves the glucaric acid production capacity of such transformants an astonishing several ten to several hundred-fold. Therefore, the first aspect of the present invention is (1) A method for producing glucaric acid including the following steps: 1) a step preparing a transformant possessing an inositol-1-phosphate synthase gene, inositol monophosphatase gene, myo-inositol oxygenase gene, and uronic acid dehydrogenase gene, the transformant having a gene recombination or mutation to induce functional inositol monophosphatase overproduction or inositol monophosphatase activation within the transformant; 2) a step for bringing the transformant into contact with a carbon source that can be converted into glucaric acid by the transformant under conditions suited to growth and/or maintenance of the transformant; and 3) a step for separating the glucaric acid or glucarate from culture obtained in the step 2). More specifically, it is a method for producing glucaric acid using a transformant possessing an inositol-1-phosphate synthase gene, inositol monophosphatase gene, myo-inositol oxygenase gene, and uronic acid dehydrogenase gene, the production method being characterized in that this transformant is a transformant having a gene recombination or mutation to induce functional inositol monophosphatase overproduction or inositol monophosphatase activation. In the fermentative production of glucaric acid of the present invention, it is preferable to use a carbon source containing a compound suited to the production of glucose-6-phosphate, which is a substrate of inositol-1-phosphate synthase (the above-mentioned activity 2). Therefore, preferred embodiments of the present invention are: (2) The production method according to (1) above, wherein the carbon source contains a compound that can be converted into glucose-6-phosphate within the transformant; and (3) The method according to (2) above, wherein the carbon source is one or more selected from the group consisting of D-glucose, sucrose, oligosaccharide, polysaccharide, starch, cellulose, rice bran, molasses, and biomass containing D-glucose. Prokaryotic microorganisms typified by Escherichia coli are very attractive from the viewpoint of industrial fermentative production due to their rapid growth ability and ease of fermentation control and have advantages from the viewpoint of the practical accomplimeshment in the application of gene recombination techniques and the established safety. The many prokaryotic microorganisms that do not have a glucaric acid biosynthetic pathway from glucose via myo-inositol also have an advantage in ease of glucaric acid productivity by the use of synthetic biology techniques in cooperation with genetic recombination techniques. Prokaryotic microbial hosts such as E. coli in particular make the application of synthetic biology techniques even easier since they do not have the ability to assimilate (ability to decompose) myo-inositol, an intermediate of the glucaric acid biosynthetic pathway. Therefore, preferred embodiments of the present invention are: (4) The production method according to any of (1) to (3) above, wherein the transformant is derived from a microorganism not having myo-inositol assimilation capacity; and (5) The production method according to any of (1) to (4) above, wherein the transformant is derived from a bacterium selected from the group consisting of Escherichia coli , bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus , bacteria belonging to the genus Corynebacterium , and bacteria belonging to the genus Zymomonas. Regardless of whether or not the host microorganism has endogenous inositol monophosphatase activity, inducing overproduction of inositol monophosphatase within the cell can enhance the inositol monophosphatase activity of the cell. Inositol monophosphatase overproduction can be induced in the cell by applying various known techniques. Therefore, the present invention includes the following embodiments: (6) The production method according to any of (1) to (5) above, wherein the inositol monophosphatase overproduction is induced by, in the transformant: a) introducing an exogenous inositol monophosphatase gene, b) increasing the number of copies of an endogenous inositol monophosphatase gene, c) introducing a mutation into a regulatory region of the endogenous inositol monophosphatase gene, d) replacing the regulatory region of the endogenous inositol monophosphatase gene with a high expression-inducing exogenous regulatory region, or e) deleting the regulatory region of the endogenous inositol monophosphatase gene; and (7) The production method according to (6) above, wherein the inositol monophosphatase overproduction is induced by introducing the exogenous inositol monophosphatase gene into the above transformant. In addition, when the host cell has an endogenous inositol monophosphatase gene, the inositol monophosphatase activity of the cell can be enhanced by the following embodiments as well. (8) The production method according to any of (1) to (5) above, wherein the inositol monophosphatase activation is induced by, in the transformant: f) introducing a mutation into the endogenous inositol monophosphatase gene, g) replacing all or part of the endogenous inositol monophosphatase gene, h) deleting part of the endogenous inositol monophosphatase gene, i) reducing other proteins that lower inositol monophosphatase activity, or j) reducing production of compounds that lower inositol monophosphatase activity. The present invention also intends transformants for use in the production method of glucaric acid. Therefore, the second aspect of the present invention is: (9) A transformant possessing an inositol-1-phosphate synthase gene, inositol monophosphatase gene, myo-inositol oxygenase gene, and uronic acid dehydrogenase gene, the transformant having a gene recombination or mutation to induce functional inositol monophosphatase overproduction or inositol monophosphatase activation within the transformant. More specifically, it is a transformant possessing an inositol-1-phosphate synthase gene, inositol monophosphatase gene, myo-inositol oxygenase gene, and uronic acid dehydrogenase gene, the transformant being characterized by having a gene recombination or mutation to induce functional inositol monophosphatase overproduction or inositol monophosphatase activation. Embodiments mentioned with regard to the first aspect of the present invention are also true for the second aspect of the present invention. These embodiments include: (10) The transformant according to (9) above, wherein the transformant is derived from a microorganism not having myo-inositol assimilation capacity; (11) The transformant according to either (9) or (10) above, wherein the transformant is derived from a bacterium selected from the group consisting of Escherichia coli , bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus , bacteria belonging to the genus Corynebacterium , and bacteria belonging to the genus Zymomonas; (12) The transformant according to any of (9) to (11) above, wherein the inositol monophosphatase overproduction is induced by, in the transformant: a) introducing an exogenous inositol monophosphatase gene, b) increasing the number of copies of an endogenous inositol monophosphatase gene, c) introducing a mutation into a regulatory region of the endogenous inositol monophosphatase gene, d) replacing the regulatory region of the endogenous inositol monophosphatase gene with a high expression-inducing exogenous regulatory region, or e) deleting the regulatory region of the endogenous inositol monophosphatase gene; (13) The transformant according to (12) above, wherein the inositol monophosphatase overproduction is induced by introducing the exogenous inositol monophosphatase gene into the transformant; and (14) The transformant according to any of (9) to (11) above, wherein the inositol monophosphatase activation is induced by, in the transformant: f) introducing a mutation into the endogenous inositol monophosphatase gene, g) replacing all or part of the endogenous inositol monophosphatase gene, h) deleting part of the endogenous inositol monophosphatase gene, i) reducing other proteins that lower inositol monophosphatase activity, or j) reducing production of compounds that lower inositol monophosphatase activity. Advantages of the Invention The present invention makes it possible to achieve more efficient industrial glucaric acid production through microbial culture techniques. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 shows a coding region of INO1 gene (SEQ ID NO: FIG. 2 shows a coding region of suhB gene (SEQ ID NO: 3). FIG. 3 shows a coding region of miox gene (SEQ ID NO: 5). FIG. 4 shows a coding region of udh gene (SEQ ID NO: 7). BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION The problem of the present invention is solved by enhancing the inositol monophosphatase activity in a transformant possessing an inositol-1-phosphate synthase gene, inositol monophosphatase gene, myo-inositol oxygenase gene, and uronic acid dehydrogenase gene. The transformant of the present invention can be made using various host microbial cells. In particular, the use of prokaryotes as a host makes it possible to newly construct a glucaric acid biosynthetic pathway in the host cell (that is, without the effect of an existing endogenous pathway). This is extremely attractive for the application of synthetic biology techniques. Prokaryotic microorganisms that can be given as examples are bacteria belonging to the genera Escherichia, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Geobacillus, Methanomonas, Methylobacillus, Methylophilus, Protaminobacter, Methylococcus, Corynebacterium, Brevibacterium, Zymomonas , and Listeria . Nonlimiting examples of prokaryotic microorganisms suited to industrial fermentative production include Escherichia coli , bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus , bacteria belonging to the genus Corynebacterium , and bacteria belonging to the genus Zymomonas. Escherichia coli is an especially preferred example of a host microorganism of the present invention because of its rapid growth capacity and ease of fermentation control. Cell lines that can be utilized as host cells of the present invention may be wild types in the ordinary sense or may be auxotrophic mutants or antibiotic-resistant mutants. Cell lines that can be utilized as host cells of the present invention may also be already transformed so as to have various marker genes related to the above mutations. These mutations and genes make it possible to provide properties beneficial to the production, maintenance, and control of the transformants of the present invention. Preferably, the use of a strain presenting resistance to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, kanamycin, tetracycline, and another such antibiotics makes it possible to produce the glucaric acid of the present invention easily. In the present invention directed toward synthetic biology, when the host microorganism does not express endogenous inositol-1-phosphate synthase, an exogenous inositol-1-phosphate synthase gene is introduced to construct a new glucaric acid biosynthetic pathway in the host cell. Furthermore, in this specification, the term “exogenous” is used to mean that a gene or nucleic acid sequence based on the present invention is introduced into a host in a case in which the host microorganism prior to transformation does not have the gene to be introduced by the present invention, in a case in which it substantially does not express the enzyme encoded by this gene, and in a case in which the amino acid sequence of this enzyme is encoded by a different gene, but endogenous enzyme activity comparable to that after transformation is not expressed. Inositol-1-phosphate synthase genes are known (for example, GenBank Accession Nos. AB032073, AF056325, AF071103, AF078915, AF120146, AF207640, AF284065, BC111160, L23520, U32511), and any of these can be used for the purposes of the present invention. An inositol-1-phosphate synthase gene having a coding region nucleotide sequence shown by SEQ ID NO: 1 in particular can be used preferably in the present invention. However, inositol-1-phosphate synthase genes that can be utilized in the present invention are not limited to the above and may be derived from other organisms or may be artificially synthesized, as long as they are capable of expressing substantial inositol-1-phosphase synthase activity within the host microbial cells. Therefore, inositol-1-phosphate synthase genes that can be utilized for purposes of the present invention may have any mutations capable of occurring in the natural world and artificially introduced mutations and modifications as long as they are capable of expressing substantial inositol-1-phosphase synthase activity within the host microbial cells. For example, the presence of excess codons (redundancy) is known in various codons that encode specific amino acids. Alternate codons that are finally translated into the same amino acids may therefore also be utilized in the present invention. In other words, since the genetic code degenerates, multiple codons can be used to encode certain specific amino acids, and the amino acid sequence can therefore be encoded by a DNA oligonucleotide similar to any one set. While only one member of that set is identical to the genetic sequence of the native enzyme, even mismatched DNA oligonucleotides can hybridize with the native sequence under suitable stringent conditions (for example, hybridization by 3×SSC, 68° C.; washing by 2×SSC, 0.1% SDS, and 68° C.), and DNA that encodes the native sequence can be identified and isolated. Such genes can also be utilized in the present invention. In particular, since virtually all organisms are known to use subsets of specific codons (optimal codons) preferentially (Gene, Vol. 105, pp. 61-72, 1991, and the like), “codon optimization” in accordance with the host microorganism can also be useful in the present invention. Those skilled in the art will appreciate that a more stable, higher level of inositol-1-phosphate synthase activity can be obtained, in the present invention as well, by introducing an inositol-1-phosphate synthase gene into the host microbial cell as an “expression cassette.” In this specification, “expression cassette” means a nucleotide containing a nucleic acid sequence that regulates transcription and translation functionally linked to the nucleic acid to be expressed or the gene to be expressed. Typically, an expression cassette of the present invention contains a promoter sequence 5′ upstream from the coding sequence, a terminator sequence 3′ downstream from the sequence. Sometimes it contains a further normal regulatory element in a functionally linked state. In such cases, the nucleic acid to be expressed or the gene to be expressed is “introduced expressibly” into the host microorganism. A promoter is defined as a DNA sequence that links RNA polymerase to DNA and initiates RNA synthesis, regardless of whether it is a constitutive promoter or a regulatory promoter. A strong promoter means a promoter that initiates mRNA synthesis at high frequency and is also preferably used in the present invention. A lac promoter, trp promoter, TAC or TRC promoter, major operator and promoter regions of λ phage, fd coat protein control region, promoters for a glycolytic enzymes (for example, 3-phosphoglycerate kinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), glutamate decarboxylase A, serine hydroxymethyl transferase, and the like can be utilized in accordance with the properties and the like of the host cells. In addition to promoter and terminator sequences, examples of regulatory elements include selection markers, amplification signals, replication origins, and the like. Suitable regulatory sequences are listed, for example, in “Gene Expression Technology: Methods in Enzymology 185,” Academic Press (1990). The expression cassette explained above is incorporated, for example, into a vector consisting of a plasmid, phage, transposon, IS element, phasmid, cosmid, linear or circular DNA, or the like, and inserted into the host microorganism. Plasmids and phages are preferred. These vectors may be autonomously replicated in the host microorganism or may be replicated chromosomally. Suitable plasmids include, for example, E. coli pLG338, pACYC184, pBR322, pUC18, pUC19, pKC30, pRep4, pHS1, pKK223-3, pDHE19.2, pHS2, pPLc236, pMBL24, pLG200, pUR290, pIN-III113-B1, λgt11 or pBdCI; Bacillus pUB110, pC194 or pBD214; Corynebacterium pSA77 or pAJ667; and the like. Plasmids and the like that can also be used in addition to these are listed in “Cloning Vectors,” Elsevier, 1985. The expression cassette can be introduced into the vector by ordinary methods, including excision by suitable restriction enzymes, cloning, and ligation. After having constructed a vector having an expression cassette of the present invention as discussed above, coprecipitation, protoplast fusion, electroporation, retrovirus transfection, and other such ordinary cloning methods and transfection methods are used as methods that can be used to introduce the vector into the host microorganism. Examples of these are listed in “Current Protocols in Molecular Biology,” F. Ausubel et al., Publ. Wiley Interscience, New York, 1997 or Sambrook et al., “Molecular Cloning: Laboratory Manual,” 2 nd edition, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y., 1989. Surprisingly enough, the present inventors discovered that inositol monophosphatase activity plays an important role in transformants obtained by introducing a glucaric acid biosynthetic pathway into a host microorganism not having an endogenous glucaric acid biosynthetic pathway. As was mentioned above, none of the research conducted up to this point paid any particular attention to inositol monophosphatase activity. However, enhancing the inositol monophosphatase activity unexpectedly greatly improved the glucaric acid production capacity of such transformants. Therefore, one embodiment of the present invention encompasses inducing overproduction of inositol monophosphatase in transformants possessing an inositol-1-phosphate synthase gene, inositol monophosphatase gene, myo-inositol oxygenase gene, and uronic acid dehydrogenase gene. The inositol monophosphatase intended in the present invention includes proteins capable of substantially hydrolyzing inositol-1-phosphate by presenting phosphoric monoester hydrolase activity capable of acting on a wide range of substrates in addition to those presenting high substrate specificity for inositol-1-phosphate. For example, inositol-1-monophosphatase is known as a typical inositol monophosphatase, and this gene (suhB gene) from many organisms has been published in GenBank Accession Nos. ZP_04619988, YP_001451848, and the like. The use of a suhB gene from E. coli (SEQ ID NO: 3: AAC75586 (MG1655)) is especially convenient when E. coli is used as the host cell. The next bioactivity that the transformant of the present invention should have is myo-inositol oxygenase activity. This enzyme typically converts myo-inositol into glucuronic acid by the following reaction. Myo-inositol+O 2 glucuronic acid+H 2 O  [Chemical Formula 1] Various myo-inositol oxygenase genes are known and can be utilized. For example, WO2002/074926 pamphlet discloses myo-inositol oxygenase genes derived from Cryptococcus and humans and heterologous expression thereof. In addition, the myo-inositol oxygenase genes disclosed in Patent Reference 1 can be used in the present invention. The following myo-inositol oxygenase genes derived from many organisms to which the following GenBank Accession numbers have been assigned, for example, are also useful in the present invention. ACCESSION No. AY738258 ( Homo sapiens myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX)) ACCESSION No. NM101319 ( Arabidopsis thaliana inositol oxygenase 1 (MIOX1)) ACCESSION No. NM001101065 ( Bos taurus myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX)) ACCESSION No. NM001030266 ( Danio rerio myo-inositol oxygenase (miox)) ACCESSION No. NM214102 ( Sus scrofa myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX)) ACCESSION No. AY064416 ( Homo sapiens myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX)) ACCESSION No. NM001247664 ( Solanum lycopersicum myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX)) ACCESSION No. XM630762 ( Dictyostelium discoideum AX4 inositol oxygenase (miox)) ACCESSION No. NM145771 ( Rattus norvegicus myo-inositol oxygenase (Miox)) ACCESSION No. NM017584 ( Homo sapiens myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX)) ACCESSION No. NM001131282 ( Pongo abelii myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX)) It is especially convenient to use a miox gene having a coding region nucleotide sequence shown by SEQ ID NO: 5. The final bioactivity that the transformed microorganism of the present invention should have is uronic acid dehydrogenase activity. This enzyme typically converts glucuronic acid into glucaric acid in the presence of NAD + by the following reaction. Glucuronic acid+NAD + +H 2 O glucaric acid+NADH+H +   [Chemical Formula 2] Various uronic acid dehydrogenase genes are known and can be utilized. For example, uronic acid dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and bacteria belonging to the genus Agrobacterium disclosed in Patent Reference 1 can also be used in the present invention. The udh genes to which the following GenBank Accession numbers have been assigned, for example, are also useful in the present invention. ACCESSION No. BK006462 ( Agrobacterium tumefaciens str. C58 uronate dehydrogenase (udh) gene) ACCESSION No. EU377538 ( Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato str. DC3000 uronate dehydrogenase (udh) gene) It is especially convenient to use a udh gene having a coding region nucleotide sequence shown by SEQ ID NO: 7. Those skilled in the art will readily appreciate that all the above explanation of mutation, modification, and codon optimization, expression cassette, promoter and other regulator sequences and plasmids, and transformation thereby given with regard to the inositol-1-phosphate synthase gene holds true for the inositol monophosphatase genes, myo-inositol oxygenase genes, and uronic acid dehydrogenase genes of the present invention. Therefore, the transformants of the present invention can possess four expression cassettes: an expression cassette containing nucleic acid that encodes inositol-1-phosphate synthase, an expression cassette containing nucleic acid that encodes an inositol monophosphatase gene, an expression cassette containing nucleic acid that encodes myo-inositol oxygenase, and an expression cassette containing nucleic acid that encodes uronic acid dehydrogenase. Preferred transformants of the present invention possess an expression cassette containing nucleic acid having a nucleotide sequence shown by SEQ ID NO: 1, an expression cassette containing nucleic acid having a nucleotide sequence shown by SEQ ID NO: 3, an expression cassette containing nucleic acid having a nucleotide sequence shown by SEQ ID NO: 5, and an expression cassette containing nucleic acid having a nucleotide sequence shown by SEQ ID NO: 7. These four expression cassettes may be placed on one vector and transfected into a host microorganism. Alternatively, a vector on which any two or more of the expression cassettes are placed and a vector on which the remaining expression cassettes are placed may be co-transfected into a host microorganism, or four vectors, each with an expression cassette, may be co-transfected into a host microorganism. Furthermore, any one or more of the above four expression cassettes may be incorporated into the genome of a host microorganism, and the remaining expression cassettes may be present as plasmids within the transformed microorganism. For example, a plasmid having an expression cassette containing nucleic acid that encodes myo-inositol oxygenase and an expression cassette containing nucleic acid that encodes uronic acid dehydrogenase can also be transfected into E. coli AKC-018 (deposited as FERM P-22181 on Oct. 25, 2011 at the Incorporated Administrative Agency National Institute of Technology and Evaluation, Patent Micoorganisms Depositary. International accession number: FERM BP-11514) having both an expression cassette containing inositol-1-phosphate synthase encoding nucleic acid (INO1) and an expression cassette containing nucleic acid encoding inositol monophosphatase (suhB) on a chromosome. Furthermore, many microbial cells are known to express the inositol monophosphatase activity (that is, to have an endogenous gene that encodes inositol monophosphatase activity) intended in the present invention. Therefore, overproduction of inositol monophosphatase can also be induced in the present invention by increasing the number of copies of an endogenous inositol monophosphatase gene; introducing a mutation into a regulatory region of an endogenous inositol monophosphatase gene; replacing a regulatory region of an endogenous inositol monophosphatase gene with a high expression-inducing exogenous regulatory region; and deleting a regulatory region of an endogenous inositol monophosphatase gene. Specifically, overexpression of inositol monophosphatase can be achieved by transforming the above-mentioned host microorganism by a construct containing an endogenous inositol monophosphatase gene or an expression cassette having a suitable regulatory region added to the region that encodes this endogenous gene, thereby substantially increasing the number of copies of the inositol monophosphatase gene in the transformant in comparison to that of the original host cell; mutating, adding, and deleting chromosomes with regard to an original host cell having an endogenous inositol monophosphatase gene by known genetic recombination techniques; or introducing mutations randomly into the chromosomes using a mutagen or the like. Overproduction of inositol monophosphatase can be confirmed by using known SDS-PAGE analytical methods, and the like. Another embodiment of the present invention to enhance the inositol monophosphatase activity includes inducing activation of inositol monophosphatase in the above-mentioned host microbial cells. Examples of techniques used for this purpose include 1) introduction of mutation into an endogenous inositol monophosphatase gene, 2) partial or complete replacement of an endogenous inositol monophosphatase gene, 3) partial deletion of an endogenous inositol monophosphatase gene, 4) reduction of the quantity of other proteins that lower inositol monophosphatase activity, and/or 5) reduction of production of compounds that lower inositol monophosphatase activity. With regard to the above methods 1)-5) to enhance inositol monophosphatase activity, inositol monophosphatase having enhanced inositol monophosphatase activity can be obtained by evaluating the activity of inositol monophosphatase encoded by this gene after having subjected the inositol monophosphatase gene to mutation, addition, or deletion. The transformants obtained as described above are cultured and maintained under conditions suited to the growth and/or maintenance of the transformants to produce the glucaric acid of the present invention. Suitable medium compositions, culture conditions, and culture times for transformants derived from various host microbial cells are known to those skilled in the art. The medium may be natural, semisynthetic, or synthetic medium containing one or more carbon sources, nitrogen sources, inorganic salts, vitamins, and, sometimes, trace elements or vitamins, and other such trace components. However, it goes without saying that the medium used must properly satisfy the nutrient requirements of the transformants to be cultured. To bring the transformant into contact with a carbon source that can be converted into glucaric acid by the transformant, the medium of the present invention should contain a carbon source that can ultimately be utilized as a substrate for glucaric acid production, that is, a compound that can be converted into glucose-6-phosphate within the transformant. The carbon source can be D-glucose, sucrose, oligosaccharide, polysaccharide, starch, cellulose, rice bran, or molasses, or a biomass containing D-glucose. Examples of suitable biomasses include decomposed corn solution and decomposed cellulose solution. When the transformants express useful additional traits, for example, when they have resistance markers for antibiotics, the medium may contain the corresponding antibiotics. This reduces the risk of contamination by foreign bacteria during fermentation. When the host microorganisms cannot assimilate cellulose, polysaccharides, or another such carbon source, the host microorganisms can be adapted to glucaric acid production using these carbon sources by introducing an exogenous gene or other such known genetic engineering techniques. Examples of exogenous genes include cellulase genes, amylase genes, and the like. Culture may be either by batch or continuous. In either case, it may be in the form of supplying additional above-mentioned carbon source and the like at a suitable point in time during culture. Culture should also be continued while maintaining a suitable temperature, oxygen concentration, pH, and the like. A suitable culture temperature for transformants derived from common microbial host cells is usually in the range of 15-45° C., preferably 25-37° C. When the host microorganism is aerobic, shaking (flask culture and the like), stirring/aeration (jar fermenter culture and the like) is necessary to assure a suitable oxygen concentration during fermentation. These culture conditions are easy to establish for those skilled in the art. Methods known to those skilled in the art can be combined to refine glucaric acid from the above culture. For example, useful methods of detecting and assaying glucaric acid for this purpose are described concretely in Patent Reference 1. Those skilled in the art who have been provided with the above explanation can implement the present invention adequately. Examples are given below for the sake of further explanation. Therefore, the present invention is not limited to these examples. Furthermore, the nucleotide sequences in this specification are described in the direction from 5′ to 3′ unless stated otherwise. EXAMPLES Example 1 Construction of a Plasmid 1-a) Inositol Monophosphatase Expression Cassette E. coli W3110 (NBRC 12713) was shake-cultured at 37° C. in LB medium (2 mL). After culture had been completed, the cells were collected from the culture broth, and the genomic DNA was extracted using Nucleo Spin Tissue (product name, manufactured by Macherey-Nagel). Using the extracted genomic DNA as a template, PCR amplification (PrimeSTAR Max DNA Polymerase (product name, manufactured by Takara Bio), reaction conditions: 98° C. for 10 sec, 55° C. for 5 sec, 72° C. for 20 sec; 28 cycles) was carried out by the following primers, and the coding region of the suhB gene (SEQ ID NO: 3) was cloned. [Chemical Formula 3] Forward: (SEQ ID NO: 9) atgcatccgatgctgaac Reverse: (SEQ ID NO: 10) ttaacgcttcagagcgtcg The suhB coding region obtained was inserted transcribably downstream of a promoter of the following sequence. [Chemical Formula 4] Promoter: (SEQ ID NO: 11) gtcgtttttctgcttaggattttgttatttaaattaagcc tgtaatgccttgcttccattgcggataaatcctacttttt tattgccttcaaataaatttaaggagttc Specifically, a terminator sequence and the above promoter sequence were inserted at the multicloning site of plasmid pNFP-A51 (deposited as FERM P-22182 on Oct. 25, 2011 at the Incorporated Administrative Agency National Institute of Technology and Evaluation, Patent Microorganisms Depositary. International accession number: FERM BP-11515). The suhB coding region cloned as described above was ligated downstream of the promoter sequence introduced, and pNFP-A54 was constructed. The pNFP-A54 constructed was transfected into E. coli AKC-016 (deposited as FERM P-22014 on Apr. 20, 2011 at the Incorporated Administrative Agency National Institute of Technology and Evaluation, Patent Microorganisms Depositary. International accession number: FERM BP-11512) by the calcium chloride method (refer to Genetic Engineering Laboratory Notebook (vol. I), by Takaaki Tamura, Yodosha). High expression of inositol monophosphatase was confirmed in the soluble fraction of this E. coli by SDS-PAGE. 1-b) Inositol-1-Phosphate Synthase Expression Cassette The cells were collected from the culture broth of distillery yeast, and the genomic DNA was extracted using Nucleo Spin Tissue (product name, manufactured by Macherey-Nagel). Using the extracted genomic DNA as a template, PCR amplification (PrimeSTAR Max DNA Polymerase (product name, manufactured by Takara Bio), reaction conditions: 98° C. for 10 sec, 55° C. for 5 sec, 72° C. for 20 sec; 28 cycles) was carried out by the following primers, and the coding region of the INO1 gene (SEQ ID NO: 1) was cloned. [Chemical Formula 5] Forward: (SEQ ID NO: 12) atgacagaagataatattgctc Reverse: (SEQ ID NO: 13) ttacaacaatctctcttcg The ino1 coding region obtained was inserted transcribably downstream of a promoter of the following sequence. [Chemical Formula 6] Promoter: (SEQ ID NO: 14) ctcaagcccaaaggaagagtgaggcgagtcagtcgcgtaa tgcttaggcacaggattgatttgtcgcaatgattgacacg attccgcttgacgctgcgtaaggtttttgtaattttacag gcaaccttttattcactaacaaatagctggtggaa Specifically, a terminator sequence and the above promoter sequence were inserted at the multicloning site of the above plasmid pNFP-A51. The ino1 coding region cloned as described above was ligated downstream of the promoter sequence introduced, and pNFP-D78 was constructed. The pNFP-D78 constructed was transfected into E. coli AKC-016 (deposited as FERM P-22104 on Apr. 20, 2011 at the Incorporated Administrative Agency National Institute of Technology and Evaluation, Patent Microorganisms Depositary. International accession number: FERM BP-11512) by the calcium chloride method (refer to Genetic Engineering Laboratory Notebook (part I), by Takaaki Tamura, Yodosha). High expression of inositol-1-phosphate synthase was confirmed in the soluble fraction of this E. coli by SDS-PAGE. 1-c) Myo-Inositol Oxygenase Expression Cassette DNA having a nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 5 was produced by artificial synthesis. Using this DNA as a template, PCR amplification (PrimeSTAR Max DNA Polymerase (product name, manufactured by Takara Bio), reaction conditions: 98° C. for 10 sec, 55° C. for 5 sec, 72° C. for 20 sec; 28 cycles) was carried out by the following primers, and a myo-inositol oxygenase (miox) gene was obtained. [Chemical Formula 7] Forward: (SEQ ID NO: 15) atgaaagttgatgttggtcctg (SEQ ID NO: 16) Reverse: ttaccaggacagggtgcc The miox coding region obtained was inserted transcribably downstream of a promoter of SEQ ID NO: 11. Specifically, a terminator sequence and the above promoter sequence were inserted at the multicloning site of the above plasmid pNFP-A51. The miox coding region cloned as described above was ligated downstream of the promoter sequence introduced, and pNFP-H26 was constructed. The pNFP-H26 constructed was transfected into E. coli FERM P-22104 by the calcium chloride method (refer to Genetic Engineering Laboratory Notebook (part I), by Takaaki Tamura, Yodosha). High expression of myo-inositol oxygenase was confirmed in the soluble fraction of this E. coli by SDS-PAGE. 1-d) Uronic Acid Dehydrogenase Expression Cassette DNA having a nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 7 was produced by artificial synthesis. Using this DNA as a template, PCR amplification (PrimeSTAR Max DNA Polymerase (product name, manufactured by Takara Bio), reaction conditions: 98° C. for 10 sec, 55° C. for 5 sec, 72° C. for 20 sec; 28 cycles) was carried out by the following primers, and a uronic acid dehydrogenase (udh) gene was obtained. [Chemical Formula 8] Forward: (SEQ ID NO: 17) atgaccactacccccttcaat (SEQ ID NO: 18) Reverse: tcagttgaacgggccgg The udh coding region obtained was inserted transcribably downstream of a promoter of SEQ ID NO: 11. Specifically, a terminator sequence and the above promoter sequence were inserted at the multicloning site of the above plasmid pNFP-A51. The udh coding region cloned as described above was ligated downstream of the promoter sequence introduced, and pNFP-H45 was constructed. The pNFP-H45 constructed was transfected into E. coli FERM P-22104 by the calcium chloride method (refer to Genetic Engineering Laboratory Notebook (part I), by Takaaki Tamura, Yodosha). High expression of uronic acid dehydrogenase was confirmed in the soluble fraction of this E. coli by SDS-PAGE. 1-e) Construction of a Plasmid for Transformation p-NFP-D78 produced as described above was digested by Sal I, blunted, and the 5′ end dephosphorylated. The suhB expression cassette was cloned in pNFP-A54, and ligated into pNFP-D78. pNFP-G22 having an INO1 expression cassette and an suhB expression cassette in the forward direction ligated in pNFP-D78 was obtained. Next, p-NFP-G22 was digested by Sal I, blunted, and the 5′ end dephosphorylated. The miox expression cassette in pNFP-H26 and the udh expression cassette in pNFP-H45 produced in Example 1 were cloned, and the two expression cassettes were ligated into pNFP-G22. A plasmid of the present invention having a miox expression cassette and a udh expression cassette in the forward direction ligated in pNFP-G22 was obtained. Example 2 2-a) Glucaric Acid Production by Transformants Transfected by an Expression Cassette-Containing Plasmid Using a Jar Fermenter A plasmid of the present invention constructed according to the above procedure was transfected into E. coli AKC-016 (deposited as FERM P-22014 on Apr. 20, 2011 at the Incorporated Administrative Agency National Institute of Technology and Evaluation, Patent Microorganisms Depositary. International accession number: FERM BP-11512) by the calcium chloride method (refer to Genetic Engineering Laboratory Notebook (part I), by Takaaki Tamura, Yodosha). The transformant obtained was cultured for one day at 37° C. on LB plates containing ampicillin (100 mg/L) to form colonies. Thirty milliliters of LB medium containing ampicillin (100 mg/L) was placed in a 150 mL flask and inoculated by a platinum loop with colonies from the above plate. Culture was carried out at 37° C. for 3-5 hours at 180 rpm until OD (600 nm) reached approximately 0.5. This was taken as preculture broth for the main culture. A quantity of 10 g/L of glucose and 300 mL of synthetic medium (Table 1) containing 100 mg/L of ampicillin were placed in a 1000 mL jar fermenter; 6 mL of preculture broth was added, and the main culture (glucaric acid production test using a jar fermenter) was conducted. The culture conditions were as follows: Culture temperature 32° C.; culture pH 6.0 [lower limit]; alkali added 28% (W/V) ammonia water; stirring 850 rpm; ventilation 1 vvm. The glucose feed solution (Table 2) that served as the raw material was added as was appropriate to make a glucose concentration of 0-5 g/L in the culture broth. [Table 1] TABLE 1 Synthetic medium composition KH 2 PO 4 13.3 g (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 4 g MgSO 4 •7H 2 O 1.2 g EDTA•2Na 8.4 mg CoCl 2 •6H 2 O 2.5 mg MnCl 2 •4H 2 O 15 mg CuCl 2 •2H 2 O 1.5 mg H 3 BO 3 3 mg Na 2 MoO 4 •2H 2 O 2.5 mg Zn(CH 3 COO) 2 •2H 2 O 13 mg FeCl 3 •6H 2 O 100 mg total 1 L Adjusted to pH 6.3 using 8N KOH. [Table 2] TABLE 2 Glucose feed solution Glucose 700 g MgS0 4 •7H 2 0 20 g EDTA•2Na 13 mg CoCl 2 •6H 2 0 5 mg MnCl 2 •4H 2 0 29 mg CuCl 2 •2H 2 0 4 mg H 3 B0 3 5 mg Na 2 Mo0 4 •2H 2 0 4 mg Zn(CH 3 C00) 2 •2H 2 0 21 mg FeCl 3 •6H 2 0 41 mg total 1 L The above culture broth was centrifuged at 4° C. for 10 min at 10,000×g, and the supernatant was collected. The glucaric acid concentration in the culture supernatant was assayed by HPLC (detector: RI, column temperature: 40° C., flow rate: 1 mL/min, mobile phase 0.1% formic acid) by linking a Shim-Pak SCR-H (guard column) and Shim-Pak SCR-101H (both trade names, manufactured by Shimadzu GLC, Ltd.). As a result, approximately 73 g/L (culture time 68 hours) of glucaric acid was produced in the culture supernatant of this transformant by enhancing the inositol monophosphatase activity in a transformant possessing an inositol-1-phosphate synthase gene, inositol monophosphatase gene, myo-inositol oxygenase gene, and uronic acid dehydrogenase gene according to the present invention. Reference Example Only 0.26 g/L of glucaric acid was produced with a culture time of 68 hours when a glucaric acid production test was conducted in accordance with Example 2 except that a transformant that does not overproduce inositol monophosphatase was produced and this unenhanced inositol monophosphatase strain was used. When it is stated that the plasmids and microorganisms mentioned in this specification have been deposited, all were deposited with the (name of depository institution) “IPOD National Institute of Technology and Evaluation, Patent Microorganisms Depositary (IPOD, NITE)”; (address of depository institution) Central 6, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken, 305-8566, JAPAN.” INDUSTRIAL APPLICABILITY The present invention can be utilized in the industrial fermentative production of glucaric acid.

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Patent Citations (3)

    Publication numberPublication dateAssigneeTitle
    JP-2011516063-AMay 26, 2011マサチューセッツ インスティテュート オブ テクノロジーMassachusetts Institute Of Technologyグルカン酸の細胞での産生
    US-2011124065-A1May 26, 2011Massachusetts Institute Of TechnologyCellular production of glucaric acid
    WO-2009145838-A2December 03, 2009Massachusetts Institute Of TechnologyProduction cellulaire d'acide glucarique

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